In the past year, many multinational organizations have adjusted their focus within developing-country markets to capture the higher-income "Middle of the Pyramid" (MoP), or the emerging middle class in these countries. The shift away from BoP strategies is largely borne of these companies' limited success in realizing the significant growth in the BoP needed to offset razor-thin profit margins. Indeed, other leaders of the BoP movement, including Al Hammond of Ashoka and Stuart Hart of Cornell University, are focusing their efforts on social entrepreneurship and sustainability as a primary mechanism for reaching the BoP.
However, this does not imply that multinational corporations (MNCs) should stop addressing the BoP. Companies such as Nokia with significant economies of scale have succeeded in penetrating this market with a combination of low-priced offerings and innovative solutions such as product financing. Furthermore, many firms are beginning to realize that the end users of their products are not always the buyers. Governments and development organizations are important purchasers of products and services on behalf of those in the base of the pyramid. By separating the concept of end user and "economic buyer", MNCs can realize near-term BoP business expansion by tapping into budgets that allow for profitable revenue growth. The key to this strategy is tracking the money flows and expenditures in public budgets and development organizations. Doing so can allow firms to not only provide appropriate offerings, but to develop the necessary relationships for successful sales.